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Submitted: 24 Oct 2019
Accepted: 25 Dec 2019
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J Adv Periodontol Implant Dent. 2019;11(2): 54-62.
doi: 10.15171/japid.2019.010
  Abstract View: 536
  PDF Download: 1071

Research Article

Effects of electronic cigarette liquid on monolayer and 3D tissue-engineered models of human gingival mucosa

Zahab N Shaikh 1 ORCID logo, Abdullah Alqahtani 1, Thafar Almela 1, Kirsty Franklin 1, Lobat Tayebi 2, Keyvan Moharamzadeh 1,2 * ORCID logo

1 School of Clinical Dentistry, University of Sheffield, Claremont Crescent, Sheffield, S10 2TA, UK
2 Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI 53233, USA
*Corresponding Author; E-mail: k.moharamzadeh@sheffield.ac.uk

Abstract

Background. There is limited data available on potential biological effects of E-cigarettes on human oral tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of E-cigarette liquid on the proliferation of normal and cancerous monolayer and 3D models of human oral mucosa and oral wound healing after short-term and medium-term exposure.

Methods. Normal human oral fibroblasts (NOF), immortalized OKF6-TERET-2 human oral keratinocytes, and cancerous TR146 keratinocyte monolayer cultures and 3D tissue engineered oral mucosal models were exposed to different concentrations (0.1%, 1%, 5% and 10%) of E-cigarette liquid (12 mg/ml nicotine) for 1 hour daily for three days and for 7 days. Tissue viability was monitored using the PrestoBlue assay. Wounds were also produced in the middle surface of the monolayer systems vertically using a disposable cell scraper. The alterations in the cell morphology and wound healing were visualized using light microscopy and histological examination.

Results. Statistical analysis showed medium-term exposure of TR146 keratinocytes to 5% and 10% E-liquid concentrations significantly increased the viability of the cancer cells compared to the negative control. Short-term exposure of NOFs to 10% E-liquid significantly reduced the cell viability, whereas medium-term exposure to all E-liquid concentrations significantly reduced the NOF cells’ viability. OKF6 cells exhibited significantly lower viability following short-term and mediumterm exposure to all E-cigarette concentrations compared to the negative control. 3D oral mucosal model containing normal oral fibroblasts and keratinocytes showed significant reduction in tissue viability after exposure to 10% E-liquid, whereas medium-term exposure resulted in significantly lower viability in 5% and 10% concentration groups compared to the negative control. There was a statistically significant difference in wound healing times of both NOF and OKF6 cells after exposure to 1%, 5% and 10% E-cigarette liquid.

Conclusion. Medium-term exposure to high concentrations of the E-cigarette liquid had cytotoxic effects on normal human oral fibroblasts and OKF6 keratinocytes, but a stimulatory cumulative effect on the growth of cancerous TR146 keratinocyte cells as assessed by the PrestoBlue assay and histological evaluation of 3D oral mucosal models. In addition, E-liquid exposure prolonged the wound healing of NOF and OKF6 oral mucosa cells.

Keywords: Electronic cigarette, cytotoxicity, keratinocyte, fibroblast, tissue engineering, wound healing
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Abstract View: 536

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