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Submitted: 25 May 2013
Accepted: 09 Dec 2013
ePublished: 01 Oct 2018
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J Periodontol Implant Dent. 2014;6(1): 13-17.
doi: 10.15171/jpid.2014.003
  Abstract View: 174
  PDF Download: 154

Research Article

Association between Oral Contraceptive Use and Interleukin-6 Levels and Periodontal Health

Shirin Z. Farhad 1, Vahid Esfahanian 1, Morvarid Mafi 2*, Nasim Farkhani 3, Mohamadreza Ghafari 3, Ehsan Refiei 3, Mohsen Ziaei 4

1 Assistant Professor of Periodontics, Department of Periodontics, Khorasgan Islamic Azad Dental School (Isfahan), Iran
2 Post-Graduate Student of Periodontics, Department of Periodontics, Young Researchers Club, Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad Dental School (Isfahan), Iran
3 Post-Graduate Student, Department of Periodontics, Khorasgan Islamic Azad Dental School (Isfahan), Iran
4 Private Practice
*Corresponding Author; E-mail: morvarid.ltk@gmail.com

Abstract

Background and aims. Changes in the balance of sexual hormones during pregnancy decrease gingival crevicular fluid levels of interleukin-6 and the resistance of gingival tissue against inflammations. Hormonal contraceptives are agents that are based on the effects of gestational hormones and simulate a state of pregnancy; therefore, they prevent ovulation. This study evaluates the effect of these drugs on periodontal tissues and levels of IL-6 in gingival crevicular fluid.

Materials and methods. Twenty-five patients who had not used oral contraceptives (control) and 35 patients using oral contraceptives (case) were examined clinically and their medical history, dosage and duration of oral contraceptives use were recorded. Periodontal indices such as bleeding on probing, plaque index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment loss and levels of IL-6 in gingival crevicular fluid were measured. Student’s t-test and Mann-Whitney test were used to analyze data.

Results. Mann-Whitney test showed a statistically significant difference in the mean of bleeding on probing in the case and control groups (P<0.05). Student’s t-test showed a statistically significant difference in the mean of IL-6 levels (P<0.05), probing pocket depth (P<0.05) and clinical attachment loss between the case and control groups (P<0.05) but no statistically significant differences were found between the plaque index of the case and control groups (P>0.05).

Conclusion. It seems that use of oral contraceptives may affect the periodontal health status of patients, leading to more gingival inflammation. Therefore, patients must have a strict oral hygiene care. 

Keywords: periodontitis, oral contraceptives, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α
 
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