Submitted: 17 Oct 2010
Accepted: 19 Dec 2010
ePublished: 22 Sep 2018
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J Periodontol Implant Dent. 2010;2(2): 77-82.
  Abstract View: 139
  PDF Download: 106

Research Article

Gingival Recession and Smoking in Young Adults: A Crosssectional Survey

Nikolaos Andreas Chrysanthakopoulos*

1 Dental Surgeon, Post-graduate Student, Department of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery, 401 General Military Hospital, Athens, Greece


Background and aims. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the effect of smoking on gingival recession in smoking and non-smoking young adults.

Materials and methods. The subjects consisted of 158 adults (75 males and 83 females), including 85 smokers and 73 non-smokers, with an age range of 18-33 years. All the subjects were clinically examined and answered questions regarding their smoking habits. The clinical examination involved assessment of plaque, calculus, buccal probing depth and buccal gingival recession. In addition, the association between gingival recession and the following variables was assessed: age, plaque index, duration of smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked daily, educational status and plaque control methods. Data were analyzed using Student’s t-test and the coefficient correlation test.

Results. Statistical analysis of data showed a significantly higher mean of recession in smokers compared to non-smokers (P <0.001). The analysis of correlation of coefficients showed a positive association between gingival recession and the plaque index, duration of smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked daily. In addition, a significant negative association was noted between gingival recession and plaque control methods, as well as the educational status.

Conclusion. The results of the present study suggest that cigarette smoking causes gingival recession and in conjunction with several other risk factors may affect its prevalence and extent. 

Keywords: Adults, gingival recession, Periodontal disease, smoking
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