J Adv Periodontol Implant Dent. 2021;13(2): 69-75.
doi: 10.34172/japid.2021.010
  Abstract View: 331
  PDF Download: 88

Research Article

Periodontal status associated with dual habits of smoking and smokeless tobacco use: A cross-sectional study in young adults

Abdul Ahad 1* ORCID logo, Afshan Bey 2 ORCID logo, Saif Khan 2, Mohammad Sami Ahmad 3

1 Department of Dentistry, Medini Rai Medical College, Palamu, Jharkhand, India
2 Department of Periodontics, Dr. Ziauddin Ahmad Dental College, Faculty of Medicine, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
3 Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Taibah University, Madinah, Saudi Arabia


Background. Tobacco smoke is an established risk factor for periodontitis. However, few studies have evaluated the periodontal status of smokeless tobacco (SLT) users, while that of individuals with dual habits has largely been unexplored. Therefore, the current study aimed to find if the periodontal status in individuals with dual habits of smoking and SLT use is different from those with any single habit.Methods. Four groups (A: exclusive smokers, B: exclusive tobacco chewers, C: individuals with dual habits, and D: non-users of tobacco), each comprising 75 males in the age group of 20 to 35 years, were selected. Along with the history of tobacco use, a modified oral hygiene index (OHI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), and the number of teeth with gingival recession (GR) were recorded. The data were assessed using the Chi-squared test, one-way ANOVA, and logistic regression. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05.Results. Group C exhibited the highest mean OHI scores, with 94.66% of participants having poor oral hygiene (OHI>3.0). The prevalence of severe gingivitis (GI>2.0) was significantly lower among exclusive smokers (group A) and those with dual habits (group C) compared to the other two groups. As much as 60% of group C participants had average PD in the range of 4-6 mm, while deeper average PD (>6 mm) was most common among smokers. The highest risk of having a tooth with GR was also associated with the dual habit (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 3.24 - 5.76) compared with the non-users.Conclusion. While both forms of tobacco were associated with poor periodontal status, the additive effect of smoking and SLT use was evident in almost all the parameters, more so with poor oral hygiene and the prevalence of gingival recession. These findings emphasize that individuals with dual habits have an additional risk for periodontal destruction.
Keywords: Gingival recession, periodontitis, smokeless tobacco, smoking
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Submitted: 21 Jun 2021
Revision: 08 Jul 2021
Accepted: 09 Jul 2021
ePublished: 13 Jul 2021
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